Map to Inclusive Child Care:
Finding Our Way Together

Resource Guide

Presented by the Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN)
The New Jersey Department of Human Services:
 Map to Inclusive Child Care Training
 and Technical Assistance Project

Copyright © 2000

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Federal Disabilities Legislation

The ADA “A New Way of Thinking”

Children in the Classroom Are 
More Alike Than Different

Curriculum Modification Planning Form

Environmental Supports

Early Childhood
Position on Inclusion:
Division for Early Childhood
 of the Council for
Exceptional Children

Early Years are Learning Years: 
The Benefits of Inclusive Education

National Association for the 
Education of Young Children

News and Information on Natural Environments
NJ Early Intervention System

Letter on Access to District Administered Early Childhood Programs for Children with Disabilities
Barbara Anderson, Assistant Commissioner, Division of Student Services & Margretta Reid Fairweather, Assistant Commissioner, Division of Early Childhood Education.

Placement Decisions and Least Restrictive 
Environment: Policy Paper
New Jersey Department of Education, Office of Special Education

Legal & Philosophical Status of Inclusion/
 Strengthening the Partnership

Early Childhood Inclusion Training Materials
Internet Resources/Websites
New Jersey Organizations with Inclusion Resources
National Organizations with Inclusion Resources
Members, NJ Statewide Map to 
Inclusive Child Care Project Team



Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal education program to provide federal financial assistance to State and local education agencies to guarantee special education and related services to eligible children with disabilities, aged birth through 21.  Under the legislation, states have the responsibility to provide a free, appropriate public education and must develop an Individualized Education Program for each child served.  The law requires that children with disabilities must be provided services in the “least restrictive environment,” with their non-disabled peers, to the maximum extent appropriate.

Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the state and local grant program.  Over 5 million children with disabilities aged 3-21 receive special education and related services.  The state and local grant program is “the central vehicle through which the federal government maintains a partnership with states and localities to provide an appropriate education for children with disabilities requiring special education and related services.” (1)  Funding to states is through a formula to state education agencies based on a relative count of children with disabilities being served within the state.

Section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the preschool grants program, which expands the requirement of free appropriate public education to include all eligible preschool children with disabilities ages 3 through 5.  Services may also be provided to children aged 2 who will turn three during the next school year.  Funding to states is through a formula to state education agencies in which 70 percent of the funds must be distributed to local education agencies and intermediate educational units, with the remaining 30 percent for planning and development of a comprehensive delivery system and for administrative expenses.  Funds are used to provide the full range and variety of appropriate developmental and other preschool special education programs to preschool-aged children.  In addition, funds may be used for comprehensive diagnostic evaluations and for parent training and counseling.  This section of the law requires that preschoolers with disabilities must also be provided services “in the least restrictive environment,” with their non-disabled peers, to the maximum extent appropriate.

Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is known as the Early Intervention Program.  This program provides grants to states for early intervention programs for infants and toddlers with disabilities, ages birth through 2 years.  Amendments in 1991 expanded the program to include children age 3 and included provisions to increase participation of underserved populations and to enhance services to “at-risk” populations.  This section of the law requires services to be provided to eligible infants, toddlers and their families in “natural environments,” that is, settings where infants and toddlers without disabilities are typically found, unless the desired outcomes cannot be met in such settings.

States participate on a voluntary basis.  The funds can be used for the planning, development, and implementation of a statewide system for the provision of early intervention services, for the general expansion and improvement of services and can be used (as part of the transition to services provided under Part B) to provide a free, appropriate public education to children with disabilities from their third birthday the the beginning of the next school year.  In all cases, federal funds are the “payor of last resort,” meaning that the funds cannot be used when there are other appropriate resources available through public or private means.

Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a civil rights law designed to prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability in programs and activities, public and private, that receive federal financial assistance.  The law creates the responsibility to provide a free, appropriate public education, although no federal funds are provided.

IDEA funds may not be used to serve children only eligible for special education and related services under Section 504.

Americans with Disabilities Act is “the most comprehensive federal civil rights law ever passed to protect individuals with mental or physical disabilities from discrimination.  The law prohibits discrimination in employment (Title I), state and local government services (Title II), public accommodations (Title III), public transportation (Title IIIB), and telecommunications (Title IV)...Public accommodations refers to private programs such as family child care homes, child care centers, nursery schools, preschools, or Head Start programs run by non-public agencies.” (2)  Public accommodations also includes afterschool centers, municipal or county recreation programs, and other programs funded in whole or part with federal dollars.

No funding is provided under the ADA, although limited tax credits are available for removing architectural or transportation barriers.

(1) Council for Exceptional Children, Fiscal Year 1996 Federal Outlook for Exceptional Children: Budget Considerations and CEC Recommendations, p. 17.


Child Care and the ADA: Highlights for Parents, Child Care Law Center

Fiscal Year 1996 Federal Outlook for Exceptional Children: Budget Considerations and CEC Recommendations, Council for Exceptional Children

Overview of the ADA, IDEA, and Section 504, Kelly Henderson, ERIC Digest EDO-EC-94-8.

“What is Part B of IDEA?: The Preschool Grants Program,” National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System (NEC*TAS)

“What is Part H of IDEA? The Early Intervention/Birth to Three/Infants and Toddlers Program,” National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System (NEC*TAS) (Note: Part H was revised to Part C in the IDEA Reauthorization of 1997)

Child Care Law Center, Child Care and the ADA: Highlights for Parents, p. 3-4.

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The ADA: "A New Way Of Thinking"
Title III: Public Accommodations

(click on the image below to see the full-scale version of this chart)

The ADA A New Way of Thinking

To reasonably accommodate individuals with disabilities in order to integrate them into the program to the extent feasible, given each individual's limitations.


  • INDIVIDUALITY - the limitations and needs of each individual

  • REASONABLENESS - of the accommodation to the program and to the individual;

  • INTEGRATION - of the individual with others in the program


  • AUXILIARY AIDS AND SERVICES - special equipment and services to ensure effective communication;


  • REMOVAL OF BARRIERS - architectural, arrangement of furniture and equipment, vehicular.


ACCOMMODATION IS UNREASONABLE, and there are no reasonable alternatives.

  • For auxiliary aids and services, if accommodations pose an UNDUE BURDEN (will result in a significant difficulty or expense to the program)

  • For auxiliary aids and services, or changes in policies, practices or procedures, if accommodations FUNDAMENTALLY ALTER the nature of the program;

  • For removal of barriers, if accommodations are NOT READILY ACHIEVABLE (cannot be done without much difficulty or expense to the program.)


  • The individual's condition will pose or does pose a significant threat to the health or safety of other children or staff in the program, and there are no reasonable means of removing the threat.

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Children in the Classroom 
are More Alike
Than Different

May be more independent Represent knowledge in a variety of ways May require assistive devices
Able to verbalize wants and needs through language Self-esteem relates to ability to learn Individualized Educational Program in place
Easily accepted in society Learn through individual style May require support personnel to achieve IEP goals
Aware of own strengths and limitations Learn through play May require adaptive furniture or more classroom space
Often uses all sensory channels Accept differences as norm May require longer "think time"
Has power to use learning Curious learners May require flexible schedules
Self-directed learner Development dependent on social interactions May require more understanding, empathy
Need to belong to classroom community and feel membership May present physical challenges
Need to develop lifelong skills May require assistance with relevance of learning
Friendships necessary both during and after school
Recognition is needed for individual gifts/talents
Need to become independent thinkers
Enjoy cooperative learning, peer tutors, cross-age tutors
Respond well to active learning and learning centers
Need to represent learning in a variety of channels
Need cooperative effort of home/school
Wide range of individual needs
Learn by doing

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Curriculum Modification Planning Form

What is everybody doing?

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Can ________________ participate just like everyone else?

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Then go have fun!!
Then what can we do to include ___________?
Can we give _______ some help from friends?_____ ________________
________________ From who? ________________
Can an adult help _________________

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Can _____________ use different materials?
What materials?___________________________________
How will they be used? _____________________________

shopping bag 

Bag of Ideas for Class Participation

shopping bag

What else can ______________ do that is 
related to what the class is doing?

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Ways to Structure the Environment to Promote Active Participation, Flexibility and Independence

(Dalrymple, 1995; Wetherby & Prizant, 1992; in Quill, 1995)

* Use Event Structures to help child know how to participate in the activity and to promote interaction

brown bullet define each activity with a clearly marked opening events (e.g., check picture schedule and gather needed materials), way to participate (e.g., use materials), and closing event (e.g., put materials away)

brown bullet use a sequence of steps that is logical and predictable to the child with clearly marked turn-taking in which the child can anticipate

brown bullet use a limited number of clearly delineated roles that are exchangeable and that require cooperation

* Use Predictable Routines to help child anticipate the sequence of events and how to participate in activity

brown bullet design the physical space and schedule to promote smooth transitions between activities and foster a sense of the school routine

brown bullet mark the opening and closing of each activity with a ritual (e.g., taking materials out and putting materials away)

brown bullet develop school routines for morning circle, centers, snack, lunch, etc.

brown bullet develop home routines for getting ready for school, after-school activities, diner, etc.

* Use Visual Supports to help child initiate choice making, have a way to say no, & maintain self-control

brown bullet use picture exchange or picture choice boards to make choices about foods for snack and lunch, activities in work centers, activities on playground, etc.

brown bullet develop clear, simple ways to indicate the many meanings of no (i.e., I don’t want that, I don’t want to do that, I need help doing it, I need a break from that, etc.)

brown bullet develop self-calming strategies

brown bullet establish a safe place for child to be alone and “chill out” and a way to ask for time alone

* Use Picture Schedules to organize sequences of time for part of a day, week, month or year

brown bullet develop picture (or object) schedules for each daily routine

brown bullet review schedule boards frequently, initially prior to each activity and gradually fade frequency

brown bullet incorporate choice making of activities/materials and gradually introduce variability into schedule

brown bullet use picture schedules to help child anticipate changes in routine

* Use Participation Guidelines to define what the task is and Completion Guidelines to indicate when the task is finished

brown bullet  use a work system to help child know what is expected and how to complete a task independently

(e.g., use a green bin for the parts to be assembled, use a blue bin to present a model or jig as a guide, and use a red bin for the assembled product)

brown bullet use timers to indicate completion of an activity or center

* Use Waiting Supports to help child understand what is expected and learn how to wait

brown bullet use a particular object to hold while waiting for the next activity (e.g., book, headphones)

brown bullet use a particular buddy to stand next to while waiting in line

* Use Spatial Supports to help child know where things are located

brown bullet clearly define areas of room where different behaviors are expected

brown bullet label areas and belongings with large clear symbols

(Adapted from Dalrymple, 1995; Wetherby & Prizant, 1992)  

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Revised: December, 1993

Inclusion, as a value, supports the right of all children, regardless of their diverse abilities, to participate actively in natural settings within their communities.  A natural setting is one in which the child would spend time had he or she not had a disability.  Such settings include but are not limited to home and family, play groups, child care, nursery schools, Head Start programs, kindergartens, and neighborhood school classrooms.

DEC believes in and supports full and successful access to health, social service, education, and other supports and services for young children and their families that promote full participation in community life.  DEC values the diversity of families and supports a family guided process for determining services that are based on the needs and preferences of individual families and children.

To implement inclusive practices DEC supports (a) the continued development, evaluation, and dissemination of full inclusion supports, services, and systems so that options for inclusion are of high quality; (b) the development of pre-service and in-service training programs that prepare families, administrators, and service providers to develop and work within inclusive settings; (c) collaboration among all key stakeholders to implement flexible fiscal and administrative procedures in support of inclusion; (d) research that contributes to our knowledge of state of the art services; and (e) the restructuring and unification of social, education, health, and intervention supports and services to make them more responsive to the needs of all children and families.

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
1920 Association Drive
Reston, VA 22091-1589
Phone: (800) 845-6CEC
Voice/TTY: (703) 620-3660
Fax: (703) 264-9494
Division for Early Childhood (DEC)
1444 Wazee Street, Suite 230
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303-620-4579

Release #7

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early years are learning years
The benefits of an inclusive education: Making it work

    In an increasing number of early childhood programs around the country, teachers, children and parents are discovering the benefits of educating young children with special needs together with their same-age peers.  Since learning is so important in the early years, this is the best time for children to begin to respect all people’s differences and the contributions each individual makes.  The key to creating a successful inclusive program is educating ourselves and others about how to ensure every student in the classroom has the chance to reach his or her fullest potential.

    Children with disabilities are, first and foremost, children, and then children who may need support or adaptations for learning.  The term “special needs” refers to a wide range of developmental disabilities or learning needs that may occur in different areas and to varying degrees. Traditionally, children with special needs were pulled out of regular classrooms and grouped together as if all their needs were alike.  Relatively few children with disabilities were served in community-based early childhood programs apart from Head Start or public school programs.

    In 1992, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established equal rights for people with disabilities in employment, state and local public services, and public accommodations including preschools, child care centers, and family child care homes.  The ADA has helped more and more educators recognize that developmentally appropriate classrooms are places where all children can and should learn together.

    Early childhood teachers’ strong knowledge of child development helps them to successfully teach young children with all talents, interests and abilities.  In effective inclusion programs, teachers adapt activities to include all students, even though their individual goals may be different.  At times, early childhood professionals and children may benefit from the assistance of related professionals such as physical therapists and other school personnel who recognize children’s individual interests and strengths.

    Some raise concerns about the advisability of creating inclusive environments:  Will inclusive classrooms hinder the academic success of children without special needs?  How will an inclusive environment meet the needs of children with disabilities?  Will children without special needs lose out on teacher time?  How can early childhood professionals access resources, support and training?  While these questions are valid, parents and teachers will find that creative modifications help all children’s learning.  According to the director of one NAEYC-accredited center, “Inclusion has helped us better focus on meeting the needs of every child in our program.”

    Research shows that the benefits of inclusive classrooms reach beyond academics.  This is particularly important for young children, who learn best when they feel safe, secure and at home in their classrooms.  An environment that encourages young children’s social and emotional development will stimulate all aspects of their learning.

Children in inclusive classrooms

* demonstrate increased acceptance and appreciation of diversity;

* develop better communication and social skills;

* show greater development in moral and ethical principles;

* create warm and caring friendships; and

* demonstrate increased self-esteem.

    Early childhood professionals who have successfully included young children with special needs note that, contrary to some expectations, they needed few adaptations to meet the needs of all children.  They report not necessarily needing more staff, money or expertise, but rather support from peers and specialists, willingness to adapt to new environments, and positive relationships with families.

    Professional development programs, supplemental support staff, and teamwork by parents and school personnel will help achieve inclusion’s ultimate goal: to provide a challenging and supportive educational experience for all children.

Caring for Children with Special Needs
, 1993.  San Francisco, CA.: Child Care Law Center.
Chandler, P.A. 1994.  A place for me.  Washington, DC: NAEYC #237/$4.50
Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, Denver, CO.
Early Childhood Initiative, Colorado Dept. of Education, Denver, CO.

Understanding the ADA
.  1993.  Washington, DC: NAEYC #514.  .50 each/100 for $10
Woolery, M. & J.S., eds., 1994.  Including children with special needs in early childhood programs.  Washington, DC: NAEYC #145/$8

This release was prepared with the assistance of Diane Turner, Part H Coordinator, Early Childhood Initiative, Colorado Department of Education


1509  16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-1426  202-232-8777    800-424-2460     FAX: 202-328-1846

Copyright 1996 by National Association for the Education of Young Children.  Reproduction of this material is freely granted, providing credit is given to the National Association for the Education of Young Children.  

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The Federal law that governs special education services is called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).  Part C of IDEA describes how early intervention services for children birth to age 3 and their families will be provided.  An important part of this law states that early intervention services must be provided in natural environments.  Natural environments are defined in the Federal law as “settings that are natural or normal for the child’s age peers who have no disabilities.”  The importance of providing services in natural environments has been a part of IDEA since it was written in 1986.  It’s just that simple: the law requires that we work in environments that are natural for children and families unless the outcomes stated on a child’s Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) cannot be met appropriately in a natural environment.

Beginning July 1, 1998, the New Jersey Early Intervention System requires that early intervention services to children and families be delivered in natural environments.  Each family is a part of a team that works together to develop an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).  The IFSP team identifies the things the family would like to see happen for themselves and their child.  These are called outcomes.  The team must then work together to identify the natural environments and routines of the family to meet these outcomes.  This will allow the team to plan how early intervention services can best support the family in reaching their goals.

Providing services in natural environments is not just the law.  More importantly, it reflects the core mission of early intervention, which is to provide support to families to help their children develop to their fullest potential.  We have learned many important things about how babies and families can benefit the most from early intervention.  This is consistent with a focus on natural environments.

We have learned that:

brown bullet Young children learn best when they are taught skills like moving, playing, eating and communicating in the real places where they need to move, play, eat and communicate.

brown bullet Young children with delays or disabilities have a hard time taking skills they have learned in a therapy room or special classroom and transferring them to places like the park or their living room, church nursery, or high chair.

brown bullet Friends, neighbors, play groups, churches, libraries and other community supports enhance the quality of every family’s life.  Services provided in natural environments will support and encourage families to find and strengthen natural supports outside the early intervention system.  These supports, established when the child is young, are likely to remain throughout his/her school career and into adulthood.

brown bullet Parents and other care givers are the people who provide the child with learning opportunities all day long.  Early intervention can assist them in supporting their child to acquire the skills he/she needs to learn.  New skills are best learned with lots of repetition and love.  The traditional therapy approach of hands-on direct service is not enough for young children.  They cannot be expected to practice the best way to grasp a spoon or the correct way to sit without the assistance of their care givers.

brown bullet Children who receive special education/early intervention services in settings that only include children with disabilities are most likely to spend their adult lives living and working in segregated settings.

The requirement that services be delivered in natural environments does not mean that early intervention programs cannot help parents meet other parents who have children with similar delays or disabilities.  Parent support and training can -- and should -- continue to be provided with parents want it.  Support services may take place at an early intervention facility, on the telephone, in a library, in a parent’s home, over the Internet, etc.  Early intervention providers should also help parents identify sources of support in their neighborhood or community.  These supports will remain with a family long after early intervention ends when the child turns 3.

If the outcomes stated on a child’s IFSP cannot be met appropriately in a natural environment, the law allows that the service can be provided in a specialized setting.  The IFSP must contain a statement explaining whey the outcome cannot be met in a natural environment.  The IFSP team must also plan how the child will be helped to transfer these skills to their every day routines and how the outcome can eventually be met in a more natural environment.

For further information about natural environments, please contact your service coordinator or early intervention provider.  Further assistance is available from your Regional Early Intervention Collaborative (REIC), Family Outreach Coordinator or the REIC’s Training and Technical Assistance Coordinator.

A Bulletin from New Jersey Early Intervention System Comprehensive System of Personnel Development (CSPD) - 7/98  

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Access to District Administered Early Childhood Programs for Children with Disabilities

From: Barbara Anderson, Assistant Commissioner, Division of Student Services

Margretta Reid Fairweather, Assistant Commissioner, Division of Early Childhood Education

This memo is to insure that districts are including preschool pupils with disabilities in general education early childhood programs when appropriate. Both the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and New Jersey Administrative Code 6A:14 specify the requirements local school districts must follow in providing special education and related services to students with disabilities. Districts must provide a free, appropriate public education (FAPE), to meet the needs of a child with a disability through an individualized education program (IEP).

Special education regulations require that to the maximum extent appropriate students with disabilities, including those who are preschool aged, must be educated with children who are not disabled. IEP teams must first consider district general education early childhood programs when making placement decisions for any preschool student with an IEP. Early Childhood Program Aid districts must ensure that preschool special education students with disabilities are included in these programs when appropriate.

To assure equal access to children with disabilities, districts operating general education programs and districts planning to implement preschool programs should consider the following issues: recruitment of children for district early childhood programs, information to families and operational design of programs.

Recruitment of Children

District information to the community to educate families about the availability of early childhood programs must include a statement clearly communicating  that access to these programs is available to children with disabilities.

Information to Families

Placement of a student with a disability is determined at least annually. For children who are presently in classes for the preschool disabled, the IEP team will consider the early childhood general education program with appropriate supplementary aids and services as a placement option at the annual review meeting.

For children who are entering the system through the identification process, the IEP team will consider the district's early childhood programs as the general education program. Decisions for placement will be determined through the IEP process.

Operational Design of Programs

N.J.A.C. 6A:14 4-4.1 (c) requires that the length of the school day and the academic year of programs for students with disabilities, including preschoolers, be at least as long as that established for nondisabled students. Districts operating both general and special education programs must ensure that the length of the school day and the academic year of preschool special education classes are at least as long as those classes for preschool nondisabled students.

For additional information contact Barbara Tkach, Preschool/Special Education Coordinator (609) 984-4950.

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A Letter from Barbara Gantwerk focusing on Placement in the Least Restrictive Environment:

State of New Jersey
Department of Education
PO Box 500
Trenton, NJ 08625-0500

May 24, 1999

To:  Chief School Administrator, Director of Special Education, Director of a State Facility, Administrator of a Charter School, Administrator of an Approved Private School for the Disabled, Administrator of a College-Operated Program, Administrator of an Approved Clinic or Agency

From: Barbara Gantwerk, Director, Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Special Education Programs

Subject: Least Restrictive Environment

Placement of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment as part of the delivery of a free, appropriate, public education is a primary goal of this office.

Therefore, I am issuing an updated version of the New Jersey State Department of Education paper of August 1, 1995 on this topic. I ask that it be given widespread distribution in your agency.

Placement in the Least Restrictive Environment

The placement of students with disabilities ages three through 21 in appropriate settings has been an integral part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) since its enactment. Three basic principles are included in the federal mandates. These are:

  • Placement is based on the student's individualized education program;

  • Placement is in the least restrictive environment; and

  • A continuum of alternative placement options is available to all students with disabilities.

Of these principles, the requirement to place students in the least restrictive environment has raised the most questions and generated the most discussion. Although this requirement has been included in Part B of the IDEA since 1975, consistent understanding and direction have emerged more recently through federal court decisions, the amendments of IDEA '97 and the final federal regulations that were published on March 12, 1999. In the Oberti decision of May, 1993, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit established a three prong test for determining placement in the regular classroom. Because New Jersey is part of the Third Circuit, the Oberti decision with its three prong test is the standard for the state. The special education code was amended by the State Board of Education on April 5, 1995 to incorporate fully the three prong test of the Oberti decision. On July 6, 1998, the special education code was readopted as N.J.A.C. 6A:14-4.2.

In light of the new federal and state requirements and in response to questions from the field, this memorandum is an effort to provide guidance on the issue of placement in the least restrictive environment. This memo will inform you of the current placement requirements, outline a decision-making process to assist in the determination of least restrictive environment and clarify the school district's responsibility in the placement process.

The IDEA requirement for placing students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment has three components:

  1. To the maximum extent appropriate, students with disabilities are education with students who are nondisabled.

  2. Special classes, separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular classroom occurs only when the nature or severity of the educational disability is such that education in the regular class cannot be achieved satisfactorily with the use of supplementary aids and services; and

  3. To the maximum extent appropriate, each child with a disability participates with nondisabled children in nonacademic and extracurricular services and activities.

These requirements demonstrate clearly the preference for educating students with disabilities in the regular classroom. However, the IDEA also requires that a full continuum of services be available to meet the needs of students with disabilities who cannot be educated in the regular classroom for part or all of the school day. Additional rules regarding placement require that each student with disabilities be educated as close to home as possible, and that each student be educated in the same school he or she would attend if not disabled, unless the individualized education program (IEP) specifies some other arrangement. Lastly, placement must be based on the IEP.

Furthermore, the Oberti decision and its codification in the special education code, require that consideration be given to the following factors, when making decisions regarding regular class placement:

  • Whether the student can be educated satisfactorily in a regular classroom with supplementary aids and services;

  • A comparison of the benefits provided in a regular class and the benefits provided in a special education class; and

  • The potentially beneficial or harmful effects which a placement may have on the student with educational disabilities or the other students in the class.

From these requirements, a sequential process can be constructed to assist districts in making placement decisions.

Before describing such a process, however, it should be noted that federal policy and the courts have identified a number of factors which are impermissible when making placement decisions. School districts may not make placement decisions based solely on factors such as blanket rules regarding the category of disability, severity of disability, the availability of educational or related services. For example, if all students of a particular classification must go to a particular building of class, it is likely to be impermissible. If students who need a particular related services go to where that service is traditionally provided, it is likely to be impermissible.

An appropriate decision-making sequence begins with the question of what are the student's educational needs. In other words, the determination of what constitutes an appropriate program for a student comes before the question of where it will be provided. In accordance with N.J.A.C. 6A 14-4.2(a)5, placement is based on the student's IEP. An inadequate IEP will make it difficult to consider any child's placement in an organized way. To assist schools and parents, the department has developed and widely distributed a model form that addresses all the required IEP components.

Next, each placement option is examined not only as it currently exists, but also as it might be modified. Then, each educational placement option is examined in sequence from least restrictive to most restrictive. Regular class placement is examined as the first option. In New Jersey, the decision-making process must include the three factors of the Oberti decision now incorporated into code and begins with consideration of placement in the regular classroom. Does this mean that each child must be placed in the regular classroom before other placement options are considered? The answer is no. The requirement for a continuum of placement options reinforces the importance of an individual inquiry, not a "one size fits all" approach, in determining what placement is the least restrictive environment for each student with disabilities. If the school has given no serious consideration to placing the child in the regular classroom with supplementary aids and services and modifying the regular program to accommodate the child, then the least restrictive environment provision of the IDEA has most likely been violated. Therefore, at the very least, a serious and thoughtful discussion must be initiated. At issue is whether the student's IEP can be implemented satisfactorily in the regular classroom with supplementary aids and services. Although IDEA does not define the term "supplementary aids and services," the United States Department of Education suggests several possibilities including, but not limited to, modification of the regular class curriculum, behavior management techniques, assistance of an itinerant teacher with special education training, special education training for the regular class teacher, use of assistive technology, provision of notetakers, use of a resource center or a combination of these.

The second factor requires that consideration be given to a comparison of the benefits in the regular class and the benefits in the special class. In Daniel R. v. El Paso Independent School District, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit determined that the appropriateness of placement in the regular classroom is not dependent on the student's ability to learn the same things that other students learn in the regular classroom. The benefit from social interaction of the student with nondisabled peers is a legitimate benefit that can be derived from placement in the regular classroom.

The third factor requires that consideration be given to the potentially beneficial or harmful effects that placement in the regular classroom may have on the student with educational disabilities and the other children in the class. Two examples of the many beneficial social and academic effects that may accrue to a student with disabilities include positive peer models and high expectations for achievement. The potentially beneficial effects on the other children in the class are fostered as they learn to understand and accept the individual differences of their peers. Harmful effects may include the disruptive behavior of a student with disabilities if the disruptiveness is severe enough to significantly impair the education of other students. The school district must demonstrate that full consideration has been given to the complete range of supplementary aids and services that could be provided to the student to deal with the problem behaviors.

It should be noted that each of the three factors of the Oberti decision must be considered equally. One factor does not take precedence over any other factor.

Lastly, if the IEP team agrees that the student should receive all or part of the special education program outside the regular classroom, opportunities for participation in programs with nondisabled peers in academic or nonacademic activities must be considered and included in the IEP as appropriate.

The requirements for placement in the least restrictive environment and the same decision-making process also apply when considering placement for a preschool age child with disabilities. However, many school districts do not operate preschool programs for nondisabled children and special education law does not require school districts to establish such preschool programs to meet the requirements for placing a preschooler with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. This perceived inconsistency has raised many questions regarding a practical approach to addressing this issue.

As with any student with a disability, the determination of whether a placement is more or less restrictive is based on the opportunity to be educated and interact with nondisabled peers. For school age students with disabilities, this placement is in the regular education class operated by the district of residence. In the case of a preschooler with disabilities, there may be no comparable option because the district does not operate a preschool program for nondisabled children. Therefore, it is important to note that for preschoolers with disabilities, placement in a regular preschool program in another district or in a privately operated program in the local community is a less restrictive placement option than the district's self-contained preschool disabled classroom.

To promote preschool placement in the least restrictive environment, a provision was added to the special education code. According to N.J.A.C. 6A:14-4.3(c), preschoolers with disabilities may be placed in a private early childhood program, if appropriate, to provide the opportunity for education and interaction with nondisabled preschoolers. The program must be licensed or approved by a government agency; the program must be nonsectarian. The district must assure that the student's IEP can be implemented and any special education or related services must be provided by appropriately certified and/or licensed professionals. Paraprofessionals may be used to provide services, when appropriate, in accordance with N.J.A.C. 6A:14-3.9(a)4 or N.J.A.C. 6A:14-4.1(e).

The discussion regarding placement for all preschool age students with disabilities must begin with consideration of a regular classroom program with supplementary aids and services. When the IEP team determines that a regular class placement is needed to provide a free, appropriate public education, all efforts must be taken to locate appropriate regular classroom settings where the student's IEP can be implemented. The department recognizes that barriers exist across the state that prevent districts and parents from placing preschoolers with disabilities in regular classroom settings when that is the agreed upon placement. The department is working with other state agencies, parents, school districts, and early childhood providers to assure that the barriers to appropriate regular class placements for preschoolers are eliminated.

To summarize, school districts must ensure to the maximum extent appropriate that students with disabilities ages three through 21 are educated with nondisabled children and participate in nonacademic and extracurricular activities with nondisabled children.

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Legal Status of Inclusion

The law and court decisions require that for each child, we must:

* Start with the regular classroom.

* Consider the whole range of supports, aids, and services.

* Look at the academic and social benefits for the child with a disability.

* Look at the benefits to children without disabilities.

Philosophical Status of Inclusion

Inclusion works when:

* Each child is viewed as an individual with 
unique gifts, strengths and needs

* All areas of children's development are seen as important

* Families, general and special educators, 
administrators & communities work together

* Families and professionals think creatively 
and engage in ongoing problem-solving

* We take time and make time to do the job right


Inclusion is increasing but it is not inevitable.  It takes hard work but the benefits are amazing.  Inclusion will become a reality when we strengthen partnerships for children in schools, districts, states and nationally, and:

* Families and professionals share knowledge and ideas

* Special and general educators cooperate and collaborate

* Administrators share leadership and vision with their staff

* Each partner seeks first to understand, then to be understood

* We truly believe that All Children Belong and can learn

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American Public Health Association and American Academy of Pediatrics.  (1992).  Caring for our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards--Guidelines for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs.  Elk Grove Village, Illinois: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Association for the Care of Children’s Health.  (1989).  Developing a Community Network: A Guide to Resources and Strategies, by B. Steele.

Buysse, V., & Bailey, D.B. (1993).  Behavioral and developmental outcomes in young children with disabilities in integrated and segregated settings:  A review of comparative studies.  Journal of Special Education, 26, 434-461.

Cavallaro, Claire C., Ph.D., and Haney, Michele, Ph.D. (1999). Preschool Inclusion.  Baltimore:  Brookes Publishing.  Provides educators, Head Start personnel, and care providers with forms and truly useful case studies so that they can promote inclusion right from the start of a child’s social and educational experiences.

Center for Special Education Finance (1994).  Resource Implications of Inclusion, and Removing Incentives for Restrictive Placements.

Child Care Law Center. (1994).  Child Care and the ADA: Highlights for Parents.  San Francisco, California: Child Care Law Center.

DeFosse, Shelley.  (1999).  Including Preschool-Age Children With Disabilities in Community Settings:  A Resource Packet.  A variety of resources on:  inclusive strategies and practices; Available from NECTAS ( $15.00

Dicker, S. and Schall, E. (1993).  “Developing inclusive programs for children with disabilities.” Child Care Bulletin, Issue #10.  Vienna, Virginia: National Child Care Information Center.

Disability Resources, Inc. (1996).  Inclusion & Parent Advocacy: A Resource Guide.

Dover, Wendy (1994).  The Inclusion Facilitator ToolKit.

Fewell, R.R. and P.L. Oelwein.  (1990). The Relationship between Time in Integrated Environments and Developmental Gains in Young Children with Special Needs.  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education 10(2, Summer):  104-116. EJ 413 316.

Ford, Schnorr, Meyer, Davern, Black & Dempsey (1989).  The Syracuse Community-Referenced Curriculum Guide for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities.

Gould, Joyce S. & Patti Gould. (1999). Inclusive Early Childhood Classroom:  Easy Ways to Adapt Learning Centers for All Children.

Hammond, M., Jentzsch, C., & Menlove, M. (1994).  Fostering Inclusive Schools and Communities: A Public Relations Guide.  Salt Lake City, UT: Utah State Office of Education and Utah State University.

Hazel, Barber, Roberts, Behr, Helmstetter & Guess (1988).  A Community Approach to an Integrated Service System for Children with Special Needs.

Institute on Community Integration (1993).  Lessons for Inclusion.

Karasoff & Smith (1992).  Effective Practices for Inclusive Programs: A Technical Assistance Planning Guide. (CRI & U.S. Department of Education).

Lipsky, D.K. & Gartner, A. (1997).  Inclusion and School Reform: Transforming America’s Classrooms.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

National Association of State Boards of Education (1995).  Winning Ways: Creating Inclusive Schools, Classrooms & Communities, by V. Roach, J. Ascroft, and A. Stamp.  Winners All: A Call for Inclusive Schools (1992).  Alexandria, VA.

National Child Care Information Center.  (1997).  Passages to Inclusion: Creating Systems of Care for All Children: Monograph for State, Territorial, and Tribal Child Care Administrators  (1997).

National Education Association (1994).  Toward Inclusive Classrooms.  (1993).  Integration Students with Special needs: Policies and Practices that Work.

NEC*TAS (1996).  Including Young Children with Disabilities in Community Settings.  (1995) EEPCD Resources Supporting Inclusion.

National Center for Educational Restructuring and Inclusion (1995).  National Study on Inclusive Education.

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1995).  Planning for Inclusion, a NICHCY News Digest, Volume 5, No. 1.  Contains inclusion bibiolography, including other inclusion bibliographies and directories, videos, and policy, “how-to,” newsletter, and organizational resource.

Peck, Odom & Bricker (1993).  Integrating Young Children with Disabilities into Community Programs: Ecological Perspectives.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Preschool Inclusion Manual.  This manual contains 10 chapters which include information such as collaborative community agreements; implementing family-guided values in preschool programs; and supporting children in inclusive programs.  Available at

President’s Committee on Mental Retardation (1995).  Collaborating for Inclusion: 1995 Report to the President.

Rivkin, M.S. (1995).  The Great Outdoors: Restoring Children’s Right to Play Outside.  Washington, DC: Nat’l. Association for the Education of Young Children.

Simon, M., Karasoff, P., & Smith, A. (1992).  Effective Practices for Inclusive Programs: A Technical Assistance Planning Guide.  San Francisco: California Research Institute.  (ERIC Document, Reproduction Service No. ED 358 635).

Stainback & Stainback (1990). Support Networks for Inclusive Schooling: Interdependent Integrated Education.  (1989)  Educating All Students in the Mainstream of Regular Education.  (1992) Curriculum Considerations in the Inclusive Classroom.

Thousand, Villa & Nevin (1996).  Creativity & Collaborative Learning: A Practical Guide to Empowering Students and Teachers.

Udvari-Solner, A. (1992).  Curricular Adaptations: Accommodating the Instructional Needs of Diverse Learners in the Context of General Education.  Topeka, KS: Kansas State Board of Education.  (ERIC Documemt Reproduction Services No. ED 354 685).

US Department of Health and Human Services. (1996).  Healthy Child Care America: Blueprint for Action.  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

US Department of Health and Human Services, President’s Committee on Mental Retardation.  (1995).  The Journey to Inclusion: A Resource for State Policy Makers.  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

T. Van Dover (1995).  A Principal’s Guide to Building a Climate for Inclusion.

Working Forum on Inclusive Schools (1994).  Creating Schools for All Students: What Twelve Schools Have to Say.  

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New Jersey Map to Inclusive Child Care Training and Technical Assistance Project Training Modules (1999)

Comprehensive training modules that include the following workshop titles: 

Introductory Inclusion Awareness

Overview of the Laws Affecting Inclusion and Child Care

Children:  More Alike Than Different

The Continuum of Child Development:  Exploring Ranges of Abilities

The Value of Play:  Identifying Children’s Strengths and Needs

The Value of Play as Intervention

Effective Teaching & Teaming:  Qualities of Effective Early Childhood Educators

Teaming for Success:  Building an Effective Team

Making it Happen:  Teaching to a Range of Individual Abilities

For more info. contact Ellie Cohen, Project Coordinator, (973)642-8100 ext. 108
Statewide Parent Advocacy Network, 35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor, Newark, NJ  07102

Beginning Workshop: Special Needs: Meeting the Needs of the Children.  Information Exchange (Washington) (1995).  Four modules:  Opening Doors to Activities that Include ALL Children; Creating and Environment that Supports Developing Social Skills; Answering Questions about Peers with Special Needs; and Using Technology to Help Children with Diverse Needs Participate & Learn.

It’s Really No Different: Conversations with Caregivers (with Discussion Guide).  (1994).  AGH Associates.

Mainstreaming Young Children: A Training Series for Child Care Providers, by Patricia W. Wesley.  Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.  (1992).  8 Modules/20 training sessions, with videotapes and Trainer’s Guide.  Modules include: Then & Now: Why Mainstreaming; Abilities First: Considering the Child with Special Needs; Working Together: A Focus on Families; The Preschool Environment: Supporting Children’s Play; Planning & Teaching: Meeting Everyone’s Needs; Listening & Talking: The Balancing Act; Win/Win: Guiding Behavior; and We’re All Different: Answering the Questions of Child Care Providers.

More Alike Than Different: Caring for Children with Special Needs in Child Care Centers: A Staff Training Manual; and Including Children with Special Needs in School Age Child Care Settings, A Staff Training Manual (1991).  New Jersey Department of Human Services.

QuickNotes: Partnership for Inclusion (English & Spanish), by Wesley, Dennis, Tyndall..  Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.  Ten modules: I.  Typical Child Development.  II.  Developmental Disabilities.  III.  Setting up the Early Childhood Environment.  IV.  Early Childhood Curriculum.  V.  What is Early Childhood Inclusion.  VI.  Including Children with Special Needs.  VII.  Health and Safety.  VIII.  Promoting Appropriate Behavior.  IX.  Families.  X. North Carolina Resources.

School-Age Child Care Technical Assistance Papers.  New Jersey’s School-Age Child Care Project, Department of Human Services.  See especially TA Paper Number 5, Serving Children with Special Needs in School-Age Child Care.

Specialcare Curriculum and Training Manual: A Resource for Training Child Caregivers, by Osborne, Kniest, Garland, Moore, Usry.  Child Development Resources (Va.)  Six modules: I.  Introduction to Inclusive Childcare.  II.  Getting to Know Children with Disabilities.  III.  Building Relationships with Families.  IV.  Including Young Children with Disabilities in Daily Activities.  V.  Community Services for Young Children with Disabilities.  VI.  Ready, Set, Go!

Stepping Stones: Pathways to Early Development (with User’s Guide). (1988).  Agency for Instructional Technology.  Thirty 15-minute videos.

Training for Inclusion: A Guide for the Childcare Provider.  (1995).  Division of Child and Family Studies, Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut School of Medicine.

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Compiled by Orah Raia and E. Fine

ABCs of Inclusion Manual 

A manual which can be downloaded.  Topics include collaboration, related services, IEPs and supports, peer interactions, assessment and transition.

ADA Home Page on the Internet

The Department of Justice’s ADA Home Page provides free information including technical assistance materials, enforcement information including settlement agreements, links to other Federal agencies, and updates on new and pending ADA requirements.

Axis Disability Rights Website 

This website is operated by Norman Kunc and Emma Van der Klift of Axis Consultation & Training, Ltd. and is dedicated to the distribution of information concerning disability rights.

The Book on Inclusive Education: Inclusion, School as a Caring Community 

[Can print out from site]

Includes a handbook on inclusion with field notes and other resources (materials/reprints from important inclusion books); interviews with 100 teachers who have had successful inclusion experiences.

Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education

This is a British independent educational charity providing information and advice about inclusive education and related issues.  This site also contains information on international perspectives regarding inclusion.

Circle of Inclusion Outreach Training Project 

This project is designed to address the challenges and issues of inclusive program development for children with severe, multiple disabilities. This web site offers demonstrations of and information about the effective practices of inclusive educational programs for children from birth through age eight.

Council for Exceptional Children 

This organization provides resources for professionals who work with children with disabilities.

Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion

This is a 5-year national research project funded by the U.S. Dept. of Education to study the inclusion of preschool children with disabilities in typical preschool, day care and community settings.

Family Education Network 

Includes a special needs section and an eight part series about a family’s experience with inclusion.

Family Village Inclusion Page 

Provides information on “who to contact,” on-line articles/newsletters, recommended reading, research, videos, conferences, and additional links.

Inclusion Press 

[Good for peers]

Site of Marsha Forest and Jack Pierpont; contains many articles and resources on inclusion, circle of friends, MAPS and the PATH process

Integrating Children With Disabilities into Preschool 

KIDS TOGETHER, Inc. Inclusion Page 

Kids R Kids, Inc., a nonprofit organization co-founded by parents and organized by volunteers, is designed to promote inclusive communities where all people belong.  This site contains a variety of helpful information and resources on inclusion.

National Center to Improve Practices in Special Education Through Technology, Media and Materials 

This is an index site that provides many links to other sites.

National Information Center for Children & Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) 

This site contains many resources, digests, and articles on disability issues.

Preschool Inclusion Connection    e-mail:

Provides free preschool inclusion monthly newsletter and thematic lessons, inclusion activities and parent page.

Project MESH: The MESH Manual for Inclusive Schools 

The Renaissance Group: Inclusive Education Web Site 

This site is produced by the Renaissance Group, a consortium of universities noted for their teacher education programs and working to reform teacher education.

Special Education Resources on the Internet 

This project is a collection of Internet accessible information resources.

Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Resource Guide for Teachers (Manual) 

This site, provided through the British Columbia Ministry of Education, offers many practical ideas which help teachers cope with typical classroom situations.

Resource: The May/June 1998 issue of Teaching Exceptional Children (Vol.30, No.5) is a special topic issue on “World Wide Web and Special Education.”  It has many articles on using the web productively to teach children with disabilities for both beginners and advanced users.  Single copies can be obtained for $15 from Center for Exceptional Children (1-888-CEC-SPED) or downloaded from the CEC site listed above.

Videos:  A Circle of Inclusion:  Length:  27 minutes, VHS/Manual:  $99, Rental: $50

The Process of Communication:  Facilitating Interactions with Young Children with Severe Disabilities in Mainstream Early Childhood Programs. Length: 10 minutes, VHS/Manual: $99, Rental: $50.  These videos are available from Learner Managed Designs, Inc. P.O. Box 747 Lawrence, KS, 66044.  Phone: 913-842-9088, Fax: 913-842-6881, Toll free ordering: 1-800-467-1644.

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New Jersey Developmental Disabilities Council Education Subcommittee  
PO Box 700    20 W. State Street, Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0700
Phone: (609) 292-3745  Fax: (609) 292-7114
Contact: Susan Richmond

New Jersey Department of Education Learning Resource Centers (LRCs):

Learning Resource Center North                LRC North Satellite
240 S. Harrison St. 6th Fl.                                322 American Rd.
East Orange, NJ 07018                                 Morris Plains, NJ 07950

Preschool Consultant:  Paquita Roberts  (973) 414-4292

LRC Central
1 Crest Way                                                Preschool Consultant: Sue Leonard
Sewell, NJ 08080                                        (732) 441-0460

LRC South
606 Delsea Dr.                                            Preschool Consultant: Claire Punda
Aberdeen, NJ 07747                                   (609) 582-7000 ext.155

New Jersey Resource and Referral Agencies

Division of Family Development
NJ Dept. of Human Services
PO Box 717
Trenton, NJ  08625  

Every county in New Jersey has a unified child care agency which provides information about child care programs and services available at a local level.

New Jersey’s Special Needs Child Care Project

Department of Human Services
PO Box 700
Trenton, NJ 08625
Phone: (609) 292-8444
Contact: Sandy Sheard

Publications: More Alike Than Different: Including Children with Special Needs in School-Age Child Care Settings, staff training manual by Dale Borman Fink

Collaborative effort among NJ Dept. of Human Services and statewide network of child care resource and referral agencies.  Provides technical assistance and resources for child care providers to develop inclusive programs, regional and on-site training for inclusion, recruitment and support of providers, and opportunities for networking among existing programs and services.  Services extend to child care center staff, family child care providers, before- and after-school programs for school-agers, resource and referral agencies, parent groups, and agencies and professionals working with children with special needs.  

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Family Support Center
Lions Head Office Park
35 Beaverson Blvd., Suite 8
Brick, NJ  08723
1-800-FSC-NJ10, (732)262-8020
Fax: (732)262-4373

Family Voices of New Jersey

c/o Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN)
35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor
Newark, NJ  07102
Contact: Lauren Agoratus  Phone/Fax: (609) 584-5779
Louise McIntosh  Phone: (908) 277-2883   Fax: (908) 277-1969 

Family Voices is a national consumer-based clearinghouse and networking group focusing on children’s special health needs. Family Voices-NJ informs families and professionals about public and private health care changes in NJ.and shares expertise and experiences of families with policy makers, the media, health professionals, and other families. 

Map to Inclusive Child Care Training & Technical Assistance Project

Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN)
35 Halsey Street, 4th floor
Newark, NJ  07102
(973) 642-8100 ext.108            1-800-654-SPAN
Fax: (973) 642-8080
Contact: Ellie Cohen 

The goals of this project are to 1) improve the quality of child care for children with special needs, 2) increase the number of child care providers that offer inclusive care, 3) increase awareness among parents and providers of the services available for children with special needs, and 4) improve the delivery of services for children with special needs through collaboration among providers of child care services and special needs services. The Map Training & TA  Project. provides free information, training(in English and Spanish), and telephone and on-site technical assistance on including children with special needs in early childhood and after school programs.

New Jersey Head Start Association

1440 Pennington Rd.
Trenton, New Jersey 08818
(609) 771-8401
Fax: (609) 771-8405
Contact: Mary Sandhorst

Provides coordination for New Jersey’s 32 Head Start grantees.

New Jersey Statewide Parent to Parent

c/o Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN)
35 Halsey Street, 4th floor
Newark, NJ  07102
1-800-372-6510        (732) 974-1144
Contact: Malia Corde 

Statewide network of parents supporting families of children with developmental delays, disabilities, or other special health needs.  Provides one-to-one matches of families who have similar needs and experiences.

Quality Improvement Center for Disabilities

New York University School of Education
726 Broadway 5th Floor
New York, New York 10003-9580
1-800-533-1498, (212) 998-5528
Fax: (212) 995-4562
Contact: Barbara Schwartz

Provides technical assistance and support to New Jersey Head Start agencies re: inclusion of young children with disabilities.

Special Olympics New Jersey

201 Rockingham Row
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
609-734-8400            1-800-336-6576
Fax: 609-734-0911
Contact: Ron Vederman

Provides information, training and technical assistance regarding inclusion of children and youth with disabilities in recreation activities.

Statewide Parent Advocacy Network of New Jersey, Inc.

35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor
Newark, New Jersey 07102
(973) 642-8100    1-800-654-SPAN
Fax: (973) 642-8080 
Contact: Diana Autin 

Publications: Supported Inclusion packet; Inclusion ToolKit for Parents, Teachers and Administrators.  New Jersey’s federally-funded Parent Training and Information Center for children with special needs, birth to 21, and children at risk of inappropriate referral to special education.  Trainings, technical assistance on education and health issues, parent to parent support.

University-Affiliated Program of New Jersey (Elizabeth Boggs Center)

335 George Street Post Office Box 2688
New Brunswick, New Jersey  08903-2688
(732) 235-9300
Fax: (732) 235-9330
Contact: Karen Melzer

Provides training, information and support for persons with developmental disabilities and agencies serving persons with developmental disabilities, birth through adult life.

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ADA Information

1-800-514-0301 (voice) 1-800-514-0383 (TDD)

Provides answers to general and technical questions Monday-Friday 10:00 a.m.-6 p.m. except Thursdays when the hours are 1 p.m.-6 p.m. EST.  Regulations and other free materials are available for mail delivery 24 hours a day.

Administration for Children and Families-Child Care Bureau: Inclusion Technical Assistance

Region II (Includes New Jersey)
26 Federal Plaza Rm 4114
New York, New York  10278
(212) 264-2667, Fax (212) 264-4826
Contact: Souvonia Taylor

Administration for Children & Families: Child Care Technical Assistance Project

1025 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 1030
Washington, D.C. 20005
Contact: Sally Hardy or Pattie Howell
Phone: (202) 639-4465, Fax (202)639-4592
E-mail: , or 

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)

1703 N. Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA. 22311-1714
1-800-933-2723, Fax (703)575-5400

Best Practices in Integration – Outreach

c/o Susan M. Klein, Professor of Education
Indiana University, W.W. Wright Education Building
201 North Rose
Bloomington, IN.  47405-1006
Phone: (812) 856-8167    Fax: (812) 856-8440

In-service training model and technical assistance for providers who serve infants, toddlers & preschoolers with special needs in community-based early childhood settings.

Brookes Publishing Company

PO Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
1-800-638-3775, Fax (410) 337-8539

Center for Recreation & Disability Studies

Recreation & Leisure Studies
CB #3185 Evergreen House
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3185
Phone: (919) 962-0534, Fax (919) 962-1223
Contact: Karen Luken

Child Care Law Center

973 Market Street, Suite 550
San Francisco, CA. 94103
(415) 495-5498, Fax (415) 495-6734 

Child Care Plus+

Rural Institute on Disabilities,
University of Montana
52 Corbin Hall
Missoula, NT 59812
Phone: (800) 235-4122; (406) 243-5467     Fax: (406) 243-2349
Contact: Sara Mulligan Gordan, Project Director

Provides support & resources to child care providers in a variety of settings, and special education providers, to ensure successful inclusion.  Offers training workshops, technical assistance, in-service training, curriculum materials, fact sheets, and annotated resource lists.

The Children’s Foundation

725 15th Street NW, #505
Washington, DC  20005
Phone: (202) 347-3300, Fax: (202)347-3382

CF produced a videotape and resource directory for working with infants and toddlers with disabilities in family child care, with useful information applicable across ages and settings.

Council for Exceptional Children- Division for Early Childhood

1920 Association Dr.
Reston, VA. 20191-1589
1-888-232-7733                   Fax: (703) 264-9494 

Disability Resources, Inc.

4 Glatter Lane
Centerreach, NY  11720
(516) 585-0290
Contact: Julie Klauber

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary & Early Childhood Education

University of Illinois Children’s Research Center
51 Gerty Dr.
Champaign, Il. 61820-7569
(800) 583-4135 or (217) 333-1386, Fax (217) 333-3767
World Wide Web:

Head Start Resource Access Project

Education Development Center, Inc.
55 Chapel Street
Newton, MA.  02458
Phone: (617) 969-7100 
Contact: Philip Printz

Part of a nationwide network of Head Start Resource Access Projects (RAPs) that provide training and technical assistance to Head Start programs to enable them to fully include children with disabilities.  RAPs can facilitate collaborative agreements between Head Start programs, child care programs, and state/local education agencies.

Inclusion Press International

24 Thome Crescent
Toronto, ON, Canada
M6H 2S5
Phone: (416) 658-5363, Fax: (416) 658-5067

Inclusion Press is a small independent press that produces resources about full inclusion in school, work, and community.

Kids Together:  Information for Children and Adults with Disabilities

Kids Together Inc.
PO Box 574
Quakertown, PA  18951
Phone:  800-879-2301 

National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies

1319  F St. NW Suite 810
Washington, DC 20004-1106
(202) 393-5501, Fax: (202)-393-1109

National Association for the Education of Young Children

1509  16th St. NW
Washington, DC 20036
(800) 424-2460    (202) 232-8777, Fax:  (202) 328-1846
Contact: Pat Spahr, Information Development Director
World Wide Web:

National Center for Educational Restructuring and Inclusion

CUNY Grad Center
365 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York  10016
(212) 817-2090, Fax: (212) 817-1607
Contact: Alan Gartner or Dorothy Kerzner Lipsky

National Child Care Information Center (NCCIC)

301 Maple Ave. W, Suite 602
Vienna, VA 22180
(800) 616-2242
World Wide Web:
New Jersey State TA Specialist, Barbara Scott
Phone: (609) 758-5646, Fax: (609) 758-4660 


National Early Childhood Technical Assistance System (NEC*TAS)

500 NationsBank Plaza
137 E. Franklin St.
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
Phone: (919) 962-2001 

National Education Association

1201  16th St. NW
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 833-4000, Fax: (202) 822-7206

National Institute on Disability & RehabilitationResearch

ADA Regional Technical Assistance Centers/USDept. of Education

3100 Clarendon Blvd.
Arlington, VA 22201
(703) 525-3268    (800) 949-4232
Fax: (703) 525-3585

National Information Center for Children & Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY)

PO Box 1492  
Washington, DC 20013-1492

Specializes in providing information and support to parents of children with disabilities and to those who work with these families.

National Parent Network on Disabilities

1130  17th St. NW Suite 400
Washington, D.C. 20036
(202) 463-2299
Pat Smith, Executive Director, e-mail: 
World Wide Web: 

Publications: All Children Belong training materials for awareness, implementation of inclusion for one student, and implementation of inclusion throughout a school and district.

PEAK Parent Center

6055 Lehman Drive  
Colorado Springs, CO 80918
(719) 531-9400, Fax: (719) 531-9452
Contact: Barbara Buswell

Publications: Building Integration with the IEP (1989); Breaking Ground: Ten Families Building Opportunities Through Integration (1989); Discover the Possibilities: A Curriculum for Teaching Parents About Integration (1988); Connecting Students: A Guide to Thoughtful Friendship Facilitation for Educators and Families (1992); Opening Doors: Strategies for Including All Students in Regular Education (1991)

Regional Resource and Federal Centers Network

Federal Resource Center for Special Education
1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20009
Phone: (202) 884-8215, Fax: (202) 884-8443

The RRFC Network offers tools and strategies that identify appropriate solutions for effective education and human services delivery systems, serving all states and outlying jurisdictions. They are specifically funded to assist state education agencies in improving education programs, practices, and policies that affect children and youth with disabilities.

School and Community Inclusion Project

University of Utah
1705 East Campus Center Drive, Rm. 221
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
(801) 585-3189, Fax (801) 585-7291
Contact: Nadine Thorsen

National Institute on Out- of- School Time

Wellesley College Center for Research on Women
106 Central Street
Wellesley, MA 02481
(781) 283-2547, Fax (781) 283-3657 

TASH-The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps

29 West Susquehanna Ave., Suite 210
Baltimore, MD  21204
Phone: (410) 828-8274, Fax: (410) 828-6706, TDD (410) 828-1306 

Yes, You Can Do It! Mentor Training Project

The Children’s Foundation
725 Fifteenth St., NW, Suite 505
Washington, DC 20005-2109
Phone: (202) 347-3300, Fax: (202) 347-3382
Contact: Kay  Hallostelle

Publications: “Yes, You Can Do It! Caring for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities in Family Child Care” video and Annotated Resource Directory.  Trains family child care providers who are caring for children with disabilities to be mentors for less experienced providers who would like to care for children with special needs.

Zero to Three/National Center for Clinical Infant Programs

734  15th St. NW  10th Fl.
Washington, DC 20005-2101
Phone: (202) 638-1144, Fax: (202) 638-0851

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NJ State Map Project Team Leader
Jane Voorhees
New Jersey Department of Human Services
PO Box 700
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-8444

Monica Anderson
Family Link
2333 Morris Avenue, Suite A20
Union, NJ 07083
(908) 964-5303


Senator Diane Allen
7th State Senate District
231 Burlington – Mt. Holly Road
Burlington, NJ 08016
(609) 239-2800

Lauren Agoratus
Family Voices
35 Kino Blvd.
Mercerville, NJ 08619
(609) 584-5779

Diana Autin, Executive Director
Statewide Parent Advocacy Network, Inc.
35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor
Newark, NJ 07102
(973) 642-8100 ext. 105

Josyln Bjorseth
Division of Youth and Family Services
Board of Licensing
PO Box 717
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 777-1217

Joyce Boose
Learning Resource Center Coordinator
Department of Education
PO Box 500
Trenton, NJ 08625

Mary Beth Bruder
 (National Map Project Director)
University of Connecticut
UCHC-Dowling North-MC 6222
263 Farmington Avenue
Farmington, CT 06030

Ellie Cohen, Project Director
NJ Map to Inclusive Child Care
Training & Technical Assistance Project
c/o SPAN
35 Halsey Street, 4th Floor
Newark, NJ 07102
1-800-654-7726 ext. 108

Lorraine Cooke, President
725 Newark Avenue
Elizabeth, NJ 07208
(908) 352-7508


Linda Feinstein
Division of Family Development
NJ Dept. of Human Services
PO Box 716
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 588-2172

Diane Goettler
Division of Developmental Disabilities
NJ Dept. of Human Services
2-98 E. State Street
PO Box 726
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 777-0571

Julie Hacker, Editor
Exceptional Parent Magazine
555 Kinderkanick Road
Ordell, NJ 07649


Terry Harrison
Director, Early Intervention Services
NJ Dept. of Health & Senior Services
PO Box 364
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 777-7734

Eric Joyce
Epilepsy Foundation of New Jersey
429 Riverview Plaza
Trenton, NJ 08611
(609) 392-4900

Jill Kail
Ombudsman for the Disabled
Cherry Hill Township
820 Mercer Street
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-03358
(856) 488-4279

Gail Abramson -Lazarus
Early Childhood Special Educator
18 Cleveland Terrace
West Orange, NJ 07052
(973) 731-6103

Beverly Lynn
Child Care Administrator
Division of Family Development
NJ Dept. of Human Services
PO Box 717
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 588-2163

Ginny Mahoney, Counselor
Child and Family Resources
855 Rte. 10 East, Suite 114
Randolph, NJ 07869
(973) 027-6060

Paula McSweeney, Consultant
21 Pigeon Hill Road
Morris Plains, NJ 07950


Mary Sandhorst
New Jersey Professional Development Center
for Early Care and Education
Kean University East Campus, Room 204
Union, NJ 07083
(908) 527-3186

Diane Schonyers
Office of Policy and Planning
NJ Dept. of Human Services
PO Box 700
Trenton, NJ 08625


Denise Sellers
Director of After School Programs
Haddonfield School District
60 Longwood Drive
Stratford, NJ 08084

Gloria Stone-Mitchell, Director
Respond, Inc.
562 Benson Street
Camden, NJ 08103
(609) 365-4400

Barbara Tkach, Preschool Coordinator
Office of Special Education Programs
NJ Dept. of Education
PO Box 500
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 984-4950

Lucille Weistuch
Montclair State University
Dept. of Communication Sciences & Disorders
Upper Montclair, NJ 07043
(973) 655-7360

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